Categories and subcategories is how the DSM-IV organizes its disorders. As the matrix explains, the subcategories and the disorders encompass various aspects similar to behavior, reasons for those behaviors, and various treatment options. This will be explained more during the writing of the eating, substance abuse, impulse control, sex, gender and sexual , and personality disorders, included will be the biological, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and treatment components as well.
Based on information provided by BehaveNet (2011), in the eating disorders class the disorder includes eating behavior. All behaviors are related to eating patterns, consumption, purging and binging as well as laxative and diuretic use are discussed in the body image cell. Additionally, these body images some want correlate with self-worth however they imply that what once could see as inadequacy actually is viewed as a reward to the addict. However, with the intense and repeated nature of this disorder and cognitive problems these individuals do not recognize they have achieved their goal. Sadly they look at their body, as an inaccurate image that only they believe is true (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Thus the wheel begins to spin. This is tremendously true in those suffering from bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa.
Anorexia is “the refusal to maintain body weight at or above minimally normal weight for age and height (less than 85% of expectable weight) (Hansell & Damour 2008, p. 279). Individuals who are suffering from anorexia consume small portions of food similar to starvation and then will exercise, burning off what they consumed and then some. Biologically someone suffering from anorexia causes damage to organs. Heart damage, anemia, and electrolyte imbalances can wreak havoc on a body (WebMD, 2011). Therapy for someone suffering from anorexia nervosa is to insert a feeding tube and or seek medical interventions. SSRI are considered helpful to some (Hansell & Damour 2008, p. 299). Granted psychodynamic therapy that includes free association, dream analysis and transference to overcome the reasons behind the eating disorder is highly recommended. There may be a possible way to discuss family dynamics in a family therapy setting in conjunction with cognitive therapy (Hansell & Damour 2008, p. 298).
Bulimia nervosa occurs when someone habitually engages in binge eating followed by a drastic way to avoid gaining weight (BehaveNet, 2011). Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are one in the same when reviewing the end result, which is self-evaluation based on influences by weight and shape. However the difference in bulimia is that those will binge and then purge and repeat over and over again by using laxatives, diuretics, enemas and probably the most common vomiting (WebMD, 2009). Many feel out of control when consuming food. This induces depression, anxiety and ensues compensatory behavior. Someone who self-induces vomiting can have severe medical problems such as damage to the `trachea, throat, teeth and the gastrointestinal tract. As with anorexia the biological elements are lacking, but can produce dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and amenorrhea (WebMD, 2009). Treatment for bulimia is the same as with anorexia because they have shared roots.
Impulse disorders are generated between age seven and fifteen years old. BehaveNet says it is “ recurrent failure to resist impulsive behaviors that may be harmful to themselves or others” (2011). Impulsivity is seeking a behavior for a short-term gain but with a long-term consequence. Something such as gambling is a prime example the short term gain is the reward of winning, while the long term consequence is the possibility of bankruptcy (BehaveNet, 2011).
Pathological gambling is a recurrent failure to resist gambling to the point that it consumes one’s life. Even if a loss happens, the habitual gambler will see out ideas and ways to obtain more money even if it is illegal. The gambler attaches the feeling of satisfaction to the winning.
Substance disorders is a dependence and abuse of drugs for voluntary recreation. It is hard to define the difference between dependency and abuse when dealing with this disorder because they are very similar. For example dependency is when someone choses to continue taking prescription drugs longer than needed; whereas substance abuse is many may consider taking illegal means to procure the substance. In either case the desired effect is the same, many display withdrawn symptoms, anxiety when not on the drug of choice. Both the dependency and abuse consume an exorbitant amount of time in order to receive the reward.
While someone struggling with alcoholism does have determinates on the biological side, most on the dependence side does not and abuse has none at all. Treatment for these given circumstances can be gradual withdrawal by the use of psychodynamic therapy as well as cognitive therapy.
Personality disorder is self-defeating traits that consume someone’s every day living and possibly lead to psychiatric symptoms BehaveNet, 2011). Many who agonize with clusters A, B, and C have inherited this dreaded problem and it is also possible that under the “right” psychosocial conditions that someone can have a heightened predispositions. Because of the variables in personality types, traits and circumstances, the behavior disorders can vary tremendously.
Paranoid personality disorder is a pattern of extreme distrust and suspicion (BehaveNet, 2011). People believe they are talking about them, attempting to conspire against them, and so on. Most suffer from failed social bonds during childhood and having it be a traumatic experience.
Gender Identity Disorder
Gender Identity disorder is a “A strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex) “A strong and persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex (BehaveNet, 2011). Most of the time many state that they began to have symptoms during childhood. Most associate with those whom they can model their behaviors and want to have playmates of the desired sex (BehaveNet, 2011). Many will begin cross-dressing and eliminate primary and secondary characteristics (BehaveNet, 2011).
Hormone therapy, gender reassignment and sex change operations are all ways one can treat gender identity disorder. However, psychodynamic therapy has been a tool to aid in a better understanding, but results have been far from clear.
Each subcategory defines disorders and how they are organized in the DSM-IV. It discusses behaviors and treatment options. Understanding personality disorders and how they affect those suffering from them will aid in a correct and accurate understanding of how to help those in the future. DSM-IV is a remarkable tool and will change as the need changes for diagnosis.
APA Diagnostic Classification DSM-IV-TR. BehaveNet, 2011. Retrieved from
Hansell, J. & Damour, L. (2008). Abnormal psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
WebMD. (2009, October 22). WebMD. Retrieved January 14, 2011, from Bulimia Nervosa –
Other Treatment: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/bulimia- nervosa/bulimia- nervosa-other-treatment
WebMD. (2011, February 23). WedMD. Retrieved January 14, 2012, from Anorexia Nervosa: